Revised manuscripts should be returned to the editors within
one month of the date from when the invitation was sent;
revised manuscripts received after this time will be
considered as new submissions. Revised manuscripts should be
accompanied by a detailed response letter on how all the
concerns of the editor (s) and referees have been addressed.
Please give the exact page number(s), paragraphs(s) and line
number(s) where each revision was made. Please copy this
letter in ‘Response to reviews’ during submission.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in
information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and
formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may
be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this
clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where
the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all
affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter
immediately after the author's name and in front of the
appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each
affiliation, including the country name and, if available,
the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle
correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication,
also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with
country and area code) are provided in addition to the
e-mail address and the complete postal address.
Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since
the work described in the article was done, or was visiting
at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address')
may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The
address at which the author actually did the work must be
retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript
Arabic numerals are used for such footnote.
A concise and factual abstract is required (of between
100-150 words for research articles and 75-100 words for a
review or theoretical article). The abstract should state
briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results
and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented
separately from the article, so it must be able to stand
alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if
essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also,
non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided,
but if essential they must be defined at their first mention
in the abstract itself.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6
keywords, using American or British spelling, but not a
mixture of these, and avoiding general and plural terms and
multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be
sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly
established in the field may be eligible. These keywords
will be used for indexing purposes.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in
a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article.
Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must
be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the
footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the